Technology and mathmatics have change the way artists think about their art

Filippo Brunelleschi  an architect and engineer.

Brunelleschi’s interests extended to mathematics and engineering and the study of ancient invented hydraulic machinery and elaborate clockwork.

Brunelleschi is also credited with inventing one-point linear perspective which revolutionized painting and allowed for naturalistic styles to develop from  the  figures of medieval art.










he created this magnificent dome in florence Itay .



Leonardo da Vinci combined art and science in his studies of nature and structures.

Both art and science can be seen in his designs for the different types of machines and devices he invented.

at this time he broke away from medieval traditions in painting, sculpture and architecture. Until that time, most art was used for the decoration of churches, then, during the Renaissance, the artists became more independent and highly regarded. The artists began signing their works, something rarely done during the Middle Ages.

The use of mathematics and geometry to achieve perspective and proportions became common.

a major step towards developing artist view was the use and develpoment  of the pinhole camera. A pinhole camera, also known as camera obscura, or “dark chamber”, is a simple optical imaging device in the shape of a closed box or chamber. In one of its sides is a small hole which, via the rectilinear propagation of light, creates an image of the outside space on the opposite side of the box.

“Who would believe that so small a space could contain the image ofall the universe? O mighty process! What talent can avail to penetrate a nature such as these? What tongue will it be that can unfold so great a wonder? Verily, none! This it is that guides the human discourse to the considering of divine things. Here the figures, here the colors, here all the images of every part of the universe are contracted to a point. O what a point is so marvelous!”

comments on the “Camera Obscura” (Dark Room), by leonardo da vinci







The Dutch Masters, such as vermeer who were hired as painters in the 17th century, were known for their great attention to detail. It has been widely speculated that they made use of such a camera, but the extent of their use by artists at this period remains a matter of considerable contraversy.





van Eyck brothers were among the earliest  painters to use oil paint   and that they achieved new and remarkable effects through the use of glazes, wet on wet and other techniques. van Eyck mastered the  technique he was traditionally known as the “father of oil painting.” this brought the painting to life giving it more depth.

The Arnolfini Portrait

The illusion in this painting was inontive  for its time, the detail but particularly for the use of light to evoke space in an interior it deceives and plays with the light. The painting is often recognised for its deceptive non euclidean geomerty.




The Amateur Photographer’s Handbook by Aaron Sussman

Thomas Y. Crowell Company: 1962